Four types-
1. Barrier contraceptive
2. Hormonal contraceptive
3. Intrauterine contraceptive
4. Permanent contraceptive
1- Barrier contraceptives
There are no contraindications for these. The best method for preventing sexually transmitted
diseases and vaginal infections.
This acts as a chemical barrier, preventing sperm from reaching the uterus. It must be used in
conjunction with another method, because its effectiveness is low when used on its own.
Female condoms
These are made from nitrile rubber. They protect the user from unwanted pregnancy and
from STDs. They are less effective than the male version.
The diaphragm
A flexible silicone dome that is positioned against the cervix. It does not cover the mucous
membrane of the vagina and therefore it is not recommended for avoiding STDs.
The vaginal sponge
This is a device made from polyurethane foam containing spermicide. It should only be
removed after 6 hours have elapsed since having sex. It does not prevent STDs.
2- Hormonal contraceptives
The pill
This should only be taken with a prescription from a doctor. It can help with several problems,
but it can also have side effects.
The progestogen-only mini pill
This emerged as a result of the side effects caused by the pill due to oestrogens. It has to be
taken every day at the same time.
The morning-after pill (MAP)
Due to its high dose of hormones, this should only be administered on an occasional basis and
within 72 hours of having sex.
The contraceptive patch
This is a simple adhesive patch that is applied to the skin and needs to be changed once a week.
The vaginal ring
This is a ring made of an ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer that releases oestrogen and
progesterone. It can be inserted by the woman herself. It lasts for three weeks.
The contraceptive injection
This has similar benefits and side effects to the pill. The injection is given in a gynaecology
The contraceptive implant
This is highly effective as a contraceptive. A subcutaneous implant of a small plastic tube that
releases hormones. It lasts for three years.
3- Intrauterine Contraceptives
Intrauterine device (IUD)
It is a small plastic device that is inserted into the uterus. It is a safe and effective long-term
method. The placement is performed by the gynecologist during an office visit. The approximate
duration for the hormonal IUD (Mirena) is 5 years and for the T-shaped copper device 10 years.
4- Permanent contraception
A simple surgical procedure in which the vas deferens, which transport sperm, are severed.
Tubal ligation
This is carried out by means of a surgical procedure or by endoscopy.
Finally, we recommend that if you have any questions or concerns, you should see
a gynecologist in order to choose the most suitable contraceptive method for each individual
situation. Here at IVI we will be delighted to help you.